Design project failures: Outcomes and gains of participation in design


论文原文:Design project failures: Outcomes and gains of participation in design

来源:Design Studies 2018

作者:Sofia Lundmark, Department of Education, Uppsala University

作者简介:Sofia Lundmark is a Researcher at the Department of Education, Uppsala University, and Lecturer at the School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies at Södertörn University. Her PhD thesis concerns empowerment, participation and norm-critical efforts in the design of online youth counselling services. Her ongoing research projects focuses on design pedagogy and creative programming practices in educational settings.个人简介链接

论文关键词:participatory designcasestudydesign practiceteamworktransformative participation参与式设计案例研究、设计实践、团队合作、变革式参与



  • Thethree-year long project timespan played a significant part in theparticipation.为期三年的项目时间跨度在参与过程中发挥了重要作用。
  • Aparticipatory design project that fails may still have positive secondaryoutcomes. 一个失败的参与式设计项目可能仍然有积极的次要结果。
  • Theparticipants developed new skills and knowledge as their roles and workpractices changed over time. 随着时间的推移,参与者的角色和工作实践发生了变化,他们发展了新的技能和知识。
  • Theparticipants were involved in a process of situated learning and transformativeparticipation. 参与者参与了情境学习和变革性参与的过程。




4.1 Participation in design and participatory design  参与设计与参与式设计

4.1.1identified three general definitions and approaches to the concept of participation. 

  • (1) an implicit understanding of participation, where participants are involved, but their role and function is not explicitly stated,  
  • (2) an understanding of participation in terms of being full participants in the design process and providing a users’ point of view, and  
  • (3) a view of participation focussing on mutual learning and knowledge transfer between the users and designers involved 
  • The argument that is developed in this paper primarily employs the third view of participation, in which the learning outcomes for the participants and their changing roles in the project as a community of practice are in focus. 

4.1.2 Outcomes and effects in participatory design projects  参与式设计的成果与影响

4.2 Method and analytical approach 方法与分析途径


  • 本土方法论(ethnomethodology)是分析人们在日常社会相互作用中所遵循的全部规则的社会学方法。其创始人是加芬克尔,本土方法论认为,一个群体中的成员间所有普遍的社会相互作用均由某些民间的规则所支配。即人们之间的互相理解不仅基于当事人说出来的东西,而且根据大量谈话中未提到的因素。
  • The anal- ysis of social aspects of design and how design is practised in different settings therefore draws in particular on research that focuses on the “doing of designing in practice” (Luck, 2012a, 2012b; Matthews & Heinemann, 2012), and how design activities are accomplished in situ rather than “analyses of work practices for design, which informs the design of products, services and systems” (Luck, 2012a, p. 522, emphasis in original).  
  • the analytical focus in the present study is on the participants’ practices of doing participation in design (Luck, 2007, 2012a), with a special focus on a practice-based theory of knowledge and action  

4.2.2 Research setting and data  研究设置和数据

  • The present study draws on a longitudinal ethnographic study aiming to build understandings of the outcomes for participants in a PD project.(研究平台/对象) 
  • The ethnographic work comprises mainly observations, along with audio and video recordings of meetings and focus group activities collected over three years, beginning at the end of 2010 and ending at the end of 2013, when the web service was launched.  民族志的工作主要包括观察,以及对会议和焦点小组活动的音频和视频记录,时间跨度超过三年,从2010年底开始,到2013年底web服务推出时结束。(研究方法)
    • Dur- ing the period of data collection, the design project under study changed, along with the participants’ roles and activities within it. These changes and the ways in which the project developed over time constitute one of the primary analyt- ical focuses of this study. 
    • The second analytical focus is on how the project unfolded in relation to its final outcomes.  

4.2.3 Analysis 分析 

  • The focus is initially on the lon- gitudinal data and the analysis unpacks three different phases, which I have identified as central to how the design project developed, the organisational changes and how the participants’ roles shifted as part of this process.  
  • As part of this, I will show how the participating counsellors address secondary outcomes related to the transformation of roles as well as situated learning related to the project, and actively project future potential projects and forthcoming work in a meeting at the end of the project’s duration.   (主要参照数据)

4.3 Three phases of participation  三个阶段

  • The longi- tudinal data builds up an argument for further developing the conditions for situated learning and transformative roles for the participating counsellors involved in the project. 
  • 4.3.1 Phase 1. Initiating the project: the participating counsellors’ expertise, 2011 发起项目:参与顾问的专业知识
    • The counsellors’ participant role during this first phase was a rather typical PD role, characterised by their informing function in the project, providing input and information from the perspective of professional practitioners (cf. Ertner, Kragelund, & Malmborg, 2010; Halskov & Hansen, 2015). The rules for engagement and participation were mainly set by the project leader from the external production company, while the participants were supposed to contribute with their professional knowledge, gained from their work as coun- sellors, aiming to design a useful service for their organisation. 
  • 4.3.2 Phase 2. Changing conditions: facing setbacks, 2012  变化的条件:面临的挫折
    • The meetings were now informed by spec- ulations and hypothetical reasoning about how the proposed new services would affect their professional roles as counsellors, bringing up some of the problems that might appear in relation to the designed services (see Lundmark & Lymer, 2016 for a more detailed account).  
    • The participants’ status thus changed to some extent during this phase, as they were now increasingly identifying themselves as project members, becoming more aware of the project at large and feeling responsible for its outcomes.  
  • 4.3.3 Phase 3. Participant power; engagement and development, 2013 参与者的权利:参与与发展
    • The counsellors were still very much active in it, as there was now an online service that had to be not only maintained but also developed further. 

4.4 Participant experiences and formulations of outcomes参与者的经验以及结果的构想 


  • 4.4.1 Legitimising the changed participation in the project使变化后的项目参与合理化
    • The importance of mutual understanding and a shared language between the various actors involved in participatory design practices has also been highlighted in previous research (Dalsgaard, 2012).   参与参与式设计实践的各个参与者之间相互理解和共享语言的重要性也在之前的研究中得到了强调(Dalsgaard, 2012)。
    • There are recurring examples in the data where the participating counsellors talk about the need to explain and legitimate the project to others, which can in turn be seen as a significant indicator of the level of responsibility and engagement, as well as increased ownership (cf. Dalsgaard & Eriksson, 2013; Dalsgaard, 2012) that the participants experience  数据中反复出现的例子表明,参与咨询的顾问需要向其他人解释并使项目合法化,这反过来又可以被视为一个重要的指标,表明参与者的责任和参与程度,以及他们所经历的所有权的增加
  • 4.4.2 Secondary outcomes–possibilities as contingencies of participation in the design project次要结果–参与设计项目意外的可能性
    • As noted by McCarthy and Wright (2015), participatory projects and participative experiences can be transformative, meaning that they “can change the way in which we see ourselves and others as well as the way in which we act, even in small ways” (p. 12) (cf. also Mezirow, 2000 on transformative learning and Dalsgaard, 2012 on reciprocal transformation processes). As demonstrated in the examples and the analysis, the counsellors have gone through a trans- formation from being participants in the project to being the ones running it by the end. As has been argued, the participating counsellors can be said to demonstrate an increased sense of ownership and responsibility (Dalsgaard & Eriksson, 2013). The transformation of their roles makes them to some extent more responsible for the project and the service provided. 
    •  As has been demonstrated, the participants were more peripheral at the beginning of the project (Phase 1), then successively became more and more central until they were managing it (Phase 3). The similarities with the apprentice who, through participation and prac- tical work becomes an expert in a specific field (Lave & Wenger, 1991), is shown in this project through the counsellors’ participation and transformation during the final phase.  已经证明,参与者更多周边项目的开始(第一阶段),然后先后成为越来越多的中央,直到他们管理(阶段3)。学徒的相似之处,通过参与和进行提卡成为一个专家在一个特定领域工作(剩余物&温格,1991),通过咨询师的参与这个项目所示在最后阶段和转换。
    • Drawing on expansive learning perspectives (Engestro€m, 2001), I argue that the participating counsellors are involved in the creation of new knowledge and practices that in this case are related to the transformative dimensions of learning (cf. Mezirow, 2000) and organisa- tional change (Sangiorgi, 2011).  基于广阔的学习视角(Engestro€m, 2001),作者认为参与的咨询师参与创造新的知识和实践,在这种情况下与学习的变革维度相关(参考Mezirow, 2000)和组织变革(Sangiorgi, 2011)。
    • During the last meeting, it became obvious that, through their collective engagement and efforts, the participating coun- sellors achieved something of shared value in the project. Through their partic- ipation and work, they have learnt and gained knowledge about technology and systems development environments that in turn make them competent and accountable for the design project. Their roles have thus gradually shifted from stakeholders involved in the project to engaged decision-makers (cf. Luck, 2003) with the competencies to make decisions on the design and devel- opment of projects from which their own practices will also benefit.他们的角色已经逐渐从参与项目的涉众转移到参与决策的决策者(cf. Luck, 2003),他们有能力对项目的设计和开发做出决策,他们自己的实践也将从中受益。
    • The transformative dimensions of participation described by McCarthy and Wright (2015), and the blurred boundaries between designers, developers and users as described by Luck (2003), are here demonstrated by the imagined futures suggested by the participating counsellors in a design project. Although the counsellors are not designers, they become deeply involved in the process and can thus be seen as both managing and reflecting on the situation in their own terms, based on their experiences during the project. Thus, as the design project changes over time, their role within it also changes. 虽然咨询师不是设计师,但他们深入参与了这个过程,因此可以被看作是根据他们在项目期间的经验,以他们自己的方式管理和反映情况。因此,随着时间的推移,随着设计项目的变化,他们在其中的角色也会发生变化。

4.5 Concluding discussion 总结讨论

  • Even though this project could in many respects be considered a failure, as many of the stated goals were not met, I have identified a number of secondary outcomes that are poten- tially valuable for the organisation of the design project. 
  • These outcomes are related to various transformational processes comprising the development of both new professional roles and a new community of practice. The identified outcomes will be referred to as: transformation of roles, situated learning and organisational change. 






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